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Episode 19 - Video
Episode 19 - Transcript
John tells Anne of his progress in finding her brother.
ANNE
Have you found my brother?

JOHN
Not yet. No. Not quite.

JOHN
But I have found something.

ANNE
What is it?

JOHN
I went to the University. You said he was a student. I spoke to his professor, the head of the course he studied.

ANNE
And what did he say? Does he know what happened?

JOHN
Well, no. Not exactly. He didn’t know where your brother went. But he told me David had left the university. He stopped going to lectures.

ANNE
When did he stop?

JOHN
Oh, about a year ago. He didn’t tell anyone. But he left a letter with the Professor.

ANNE
A letter! Have you got it? Where is it?

JOHN
The professor has it. He wouldn’t give it to me because it was addressed to you. He left… ah, his card.

ANNE
I’ll go and see him. Thankyou.

JOHN
I found out something else.

ANNE
Yes?

JOHN
Your brother had a girlfriend.

ANNE
Really! He didn’t tell me. Who is she?

JOHN
Well, I don’t know yet, but I’m sure I can find her. We’re closing in Ms Lee. Fear not.

ANNE
Thankyou.
Episode 19 - Notes


1. PAST TENSE
 

The past tense is used to talk about events in the past that have finished.

We add ed to verbs to show this.
I study at the university. (present)
I studied at the university. (past)
This means I do not study at the university any more.
JOHN
He stopped going to lectures.
  Here are some more examples.
I work in a bank. (present)
I worked in a bank. (past)
He walks to the shops. (present)
He walked to the shops. (past)
 
more information: past tense - episode 6
   
2. PRONOUNCING -ed
  The ed on the end of verbs is usually a short sound pronounced d or t.
But when ed is added to words with a d or t sound on the end we pronounce it ed

t
I’ll pot the plants. (present)
I potted the plants. (past)

d
I’ll load the shopping in the car. (present)
I loaded the shopping in the car. (past)

Ed is pronounced t when the word ends with these consonant sounds.
s mess / messed (mest)
He messed her hair.

p sip / sipped (sipt)
She sipped her drink.
JOHN
He stopped going to lectures.
 

k pick / picked (pikt)
He picked his nose.

f laugh / laughed (laft)
They laughed at my jokes.

sh fish / fished (fisht)
He fished in a boat.

Ed is pronounced d when the word ends with these consonant sounds.
b mob / mobbed (mobd)
He was mobbed by fans.

g beg / begged (begd)
I begged for mercy.

l fill / filled (fild)
I filled the tank.

z quiz / quizzed (quizd)
The police quizzed him for hours.

v love/ loved (lovd)
I loved the movie.

m hum / hummed (humd)
We hummed the tune.

n thin / thinned (thind)
I thinned out the weeds.
ANNE
Does he know what happened?
 

j judge/ judged (jujd)
He judged her harshly.

th smooth / smoothed (smoothd)
She smoothed her dress.

ng clang / clanged (clangd)
The bell clanged loudly.

Ed is also pronounced d when the word ends with a vowel sound.
I fry / fried
I fried an egg.
JOHN
I spoke to his professor, the head of the course he studied.
 
   
3. IRREGULAR VERBS

Irregular verbs do not have ed added to form the past tense.
For example, the past tense of teach is taught.
I teach English. (present)
I taught English. (past)

The past tense of find is found:
JOHN
I found out something else.
  The past tense of speak is spoke:
JOHN
I spoke to his professor...
  The past tense of tell is told:
JOHN
But he told me David had left the university.
  Two important verbs have very different past tenses.
The past tense of go is went.
I go to school. (present)
I went to school. (past)
JOHN
I went to the University.
  The past tense of is is was or were.
He is late.
He was late.
They were late.
   
4. PAST TENSE WITH DID & DIDN'T

Another way of talking about the past is using the words did and didn’t.
Did is the irregular past tense of do.
I do lots of things. (present)
I did lots of things. (past)

Did is a type of verb that’s used with other verbs.
What did he say?
The word did is used to ask about the past with the verb say.
But we don’t use the past tense of say with did.
We don’t say:
What did he said? X
We say
What did he say?
ANNE
And what did he say?
  The negative, or opposite of did is did not
We usually say and write did not as didn’t
I didn’t say anything. (past)
JOHN
He didn’t tell anyone.
  So there are two main ways of forming the past tense.
One changes the verb.
I tell you. (present)
I told you. (past)
JOHN
But he told me David had left the university.
  The other uses did or didn't with the verb.
I did tell you. (past)
ANNE
Really! He didn’t tell me.
  Remember that we mostly use did like this in questions.
When did he stop going to classes? (past)
ANNE
When did he stop?
  And change the verb in answers and statements.
He stopped going to classes because he was bored. (past)
JOHN
He stopped going to lectures.
 
 
   
5. CONTRACTIONS

Contractions are two words that are said together very quickly.
did not becomes didn’t

When we write these words we put them together and use an apostrophe where there is a missing sound.
did not
didnt

We always shorten not to n’t, but sometimes we change the way we say the first word.
do not
don’t
JOHN
Well, I don’t know yet...
 

will not
won’t

Here are the other contractions used in today’s drama.
wouldn’t
would not

JOHN
He wouldn’t give it to me because it was addressed to you.
  I’ll
I will

ANNE
I’ll go and see him.
  I’m
I am

JOHN
Well, I don’t know yet, but I’m sure I can find her.
  we’re
we are

JOHN
We’re closing in Ms Lee.
   

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