|1. Apologising - 2. Showing Concern - 3.Present Perfect - 4. Past Participle - 5. Agreeing & Disagreeing - 6. For, Since, Ago|
When we think we have done something wrong we apologise by saying
I was sorry to hear that you lost your job.
I’m so sorry. Have you had any luck?
To reply to someone who has said sorry, we say, Don’t
mention it, Not at all or That’s
Sorry about the mess.
Not at all.
Not at all. You have a lovely family.
|2. SHOWING CONCERN|
|Here are some of the phrases we use when we want to find why someone
What’s the matter?
What’s the problem?
Anne! What’s the matter?
|3. PRESENT PERFECT|
|We use the present perfect tense to describe an action started in the
past that is still true.
She has worked hard. (She has worked hard in the past and works hard now)
I have lost my keys. (the keys were lost in the past and are still lost)
Present perfect is made from the verb have and the past participle of another verb.
|We use have with plural nouns and has
with singular nouns.
The frogs have started croaking.
The frog has started croaking.
|This is how have is used with pronouns.
|Usually we shorten them like this.
I’ve hired a private investigator.
|We also use the negative have not or haven't
to talk about something not being done in the past and still not being
I have not met him.
I haven't met him.
There’s something I haven’t told you.
|4. PAST PARTICIPLE|
The past participle of a verb is the one
we use with have / has and is
|For example, the past tense of see is saw,
but the past participle is seen.
I see you. (present)
I saw you yesterday. (past)
I’ve seen you many times. (past participle making a present perfect tense)
I haven’t seen him in two years.
|5. AGREEING & DISAGREEING|
|Here are some phrases we use when we agree or disagree with what someone has said.|
I guess so. I suppose you’re right.
Perhaps. I don’t know.
|6. FOR, SINCE, AGO|
|These words are all used to talk about time.|
|For is used for a period of time that something
I’ve been working for hours.
I’ll do the job for a year.
I fed his dog for a week.
|Since is a specific time in the past.
I haven’t seen you since Monday.
I’ve been working since 10 o’clock.
The pipe has been leaking since yesterday.
It’s been a long time since David last called.
|Ago refers to a length of time before the
I saw you a week ago.
That happened a year ago.
It’s 10 o’clock. You were supposed to be here an hour ago, at 9 o’clock.