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Episode 6 - Video
Episode 6 - Transcript
ANNE
My brother, David, worked in the family business too. But he didnít like it. He wanted to try something different.

JOHN
So what happened?

ANNE
My parents agreed. They let him come to Australia to study.

JOHN
Where did he go?

ANNE
He came here, to Adelaide. He studied computer science. We thought he was happy.

JOHN
And then what happened?

ANNE
I donít know. He wrote every week, and then the letters stopped.

JOHN
Do you know where he lived?

ANNE
He stayed with an Australian family. He was a boarder. Hereís the address.
She passes JOHN a piece of paper.

JOHN
Did you phone them?

ANNE
Yes, of course. He left there a year ago. They donít know where he went.

JOHN
Does he have a mobile phone?

ANNE
I donít know. He did, but he doesnít answer it now.

JOHN
Donít worry Ms Lee. Iíll find your brother. Iím on the case.
He shakes her hand and she leaves. JOHN looks at the photo. Now he looks worried.
Episode 6 - Notes


1. THE PAST TENSE

The simple past tense is used to talk about events in the past that are finished.

I worked in a restaurant last year.
(but I don’t work there now)
I did work in a restaurant last year.
(and I don't work there anymore)
To talk about things that have not happened in the past we use did not or didn't.
I didn't work in a restaurant last year.
ANNE
My brother, David, worked in the family business too. But he didn’t like it.
   
2. REGULAR VERBS
  Regular verbs form the past tense by adding ed to the basic form of the verb.

For example: work is the basic form
Adding 'ed' gives us: worked
The ending does not change with different pronouns.
I worked; he worked, we worked, you worked, they worked

There are three ways of pronouncing the ed ending.

We use the ed pronunciation after the consonants t and d.
t arrest / arrested
You should arrest him. / He was arrested.

d load / loaded
I’ll load the shopping in the car. / I loaded the shopping in the car.

ANNE
He wanted to try something different.
We use the t pronunciation after the sounds s, p, k, f and sh
s mess/ messed
He messed her hair.

p sip/ sipped
She sipped her drink.

k pick/ picked
He picked his nose.

f laugh/ laughed
They laughed at my jokes.

sh fish/ fished
He fished in a boat.

ANNE
My brother, David, worked in the family business too.

ANNE
I don’t know. He wrote every week, and then the letters stopped.

We use the d pronunciation after the consonant sounds b, g, l, z, v, m, n, j, th and ng
b mob/ mobbed
He was mobbed by fans.

g beg/ begged
I begged for mercy.

l fill/ filled
I filled the tank.

z quiz/ quizzed
The police quizzed him for hours.

v love/ loved
I loved the movie.

m hum/ hummed
We hummed the tune.

n thin/ thinned
I thinned out the weeds

j judge/ judged
He judged her harshly

th smooth/ smoothed
She smoothed her dress.

ng clang/ clanged
The bell clanged loudly

JOHN
So what happened?

JOHN
Do you know where he lived?

 

ed is also pronounced d when the word ends with a vowel sound.
I fry / fried
I fried an egg.

A stay / stayed
I stayed all day.

ANNE
My parents agreed.

ANNE
He stayed with an Australian family.

   
3. SPELLING VERBS ENDING IN Y

Some verbs which end in y change the y to an i before adding ed.

hurry
hurried

marry
married

study
studied

worry
worried

Verbs which end in ay or oy don’t change the y to an i.

stay
stayed

delay
delayed

annoy
annoyed

enjoy
enjoyed

   
4. IRREGULAR VERBS

Many verbs are 'irregular'. They form their past tense in different ways. We just have to learn these. Look at the verb to be.

Present
is
am
are

Past
was
were

Notice that this verb to be changes depending on whether the subject is singular or plural.

Present
I am happy.
He is happy.
You are happy.
We are happy.
They are happy.

Past
I was happy.
He was happy.
You were happy.
We were happy.
They were happy.

Other irregular verbs just have past tense forms that don't end with ed. Here are some examples from today's episode.

The past tense of leave is left.
I leave tomorrow.
I left yesterday.

ANNE
He left there a year ago.
  The past tense of go is went.
I go to university.
I went to university.
ANNE
They don’t know where he went.
The past tense of write is wrote.
I write these examples.
I wrote you an email.

ANNE
He wrote every week, and then the letters stopped.
The past tense of come is came.
I want you to come to the meeting.
I came to the meeting.

ANNE
He came here, to Adelaide.
The past tense of think is thought.
I think English is easy.
I thought English was easy.

ANNE
We thought he was happy.
The past tense of let is let.
I will let the cat in.
I let the cat in last night.

ANNE
They let him come to Australia to study.
   
5. QUESTIONS IN THE PAST TENSE

There are several ways of asking questions in the past tense. To ask about past actions we use the past tense of the verb 'to do'did.

Questions starting with did are asking whether an action was performed or not. The answer is usually 'yes' or 'no'.

We use did followed by a pronoun or subject, and then the verb or action being asked about.

Notice that the verb used after did is not in the past tense. The word did forms the past tense for the question and the answer.

Did you feed the cat?
Yes I did feed the cat.

You can also answer this question by just saying yes, or yes I did.
Did you feed the cat?
Yes.

Did you feed the cat?
Yes I did.
You answer no with the negative form of did - didn't
Did
you feed the cat?

No I didn’t.
Didn't is the contracted form of did not. We usually use did not to add emphasis.
Did you steal the money?
I did not.

You can give answers to did questions about the past with the past tense of the other verb used in the question.
Did he go to the bank?
Yes he went to the bank.

Did you feed the cat?
Yes I fed the cat.
 
   
6. QUESTIONS USING WHAT and WHERE

Questions starting with what and where are asking for information.
Where did you go?
I went to the supermarket.

What did you do?
I bought some eggs.

JOHN
Where did he go?

ANNE
He came here, to Adelaide.
  We’ll look more at questions like these in later episodes of Living English.

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